E-Commerce in times of pandemic: re-examining the role of key antecedents of Purchase Intention


  • Cristobal Barra Departamento de Administración, Facultad de Economía y Negocios, Universidad de Chile https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4862-5080
  • Wilson Esquivel Facultad de Economía y Negocios, Universidad Finis Terrae
  • Allison Medel Facultad de Economía y Negocios, Universidad Finis Terrae
  • Bastian Melendez Facultad de Economía y Negocios, Universidad Finis Terrae


The objective of this research is to test a model for the formation of purchase intention in electronic commerce in the  pandemic period, and in this way, to establish the similarities and differences that could be  developed in the relationship of these variables with a context of normality. To carry out this objective, a model is proposed where trust and ease of use are the most relevant antecedents of online purchase intention.  Then, on the one hand, the willingness to  trust, privacy and security are considered as determinant variables of trust, while, on the other hand, utilitarian and hedonic  characteristics are considered as determinants of ease of use. To test the model, a sample of 242 users of electronic  commerce platforms in Chile was obtained and the relationships were analyzed using a  structural equation model. As a result, it was possible to verify that the effect of trust and ease of use are verified in this context, but a greater effect of the second variable with respect to the first is striking. In addition, it was found that the effect of the willingness to trust and privacy on trust is not significant, as is the effect of hedonic characteristics on ease of use, giving a leading role to security and utilitarian characteristics in the model. The results help administrators to point their management objectives towards these  variables in order to improve the purchase intention of consumers.


Purchase intention, E-Commerce, Trust, Ease of use, Pandemic


Arruda Filho, E. J. M., Simões, J. D. S., & De Muylder, C. F. (2020). The low effect of perceived risk in the relation between hedonic values and purchase intention. Journal of Marketing Management, 36(1/2), 128–148. https://doi.org/10.1080/0267257X.2019.1697725

Bazi, S., Haddad, H., Al-Amad, A. H., Rees, D. & Hajli, N. (2022). Investigating the impact of situational influences and social support on social commerce during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Journal of Theoretical & Applied Electronic Commerce Research, 17 (1), 104-121. https://doi.org/10.3390/jtaer17010006

Belanger, F., Hiller, J., & Smith, W. (2002). Trustworthiness in electronic commerce: The role of privacy, security, and site attributes. The Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 11(3-4), 245-270. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0963-8687(02)00018-5

Bernardo, M., Marimon, F., & Alonso-Almeida, M. D. M. (2012). Functional quality and hedonic quality: A study of the dimensions of e-service quality in online travel agencies. Information and Management, 49(7–8), 342–347. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.im.2012.06.005

Black, G. S. (2005). Predictors of consumer trust: Likelihood to pay online. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 23(7), 648-658. https://doi.org/10.1108/02634500510630186

Cámara de Comercio de Santiago (2016). La economía digital en Chile 2016. Cámara de Comercio de Santiago. www.ccs.cl/html/economia_digital/comite_comercio_electronico.html

Cámara Nacional de Comercio (2021). Informe de ventas en comercio electrónico 2021. Cámara de Comercio de Santiago. https://www.cnc.cl/

Chaudhury, A. & Kuilboer, J. P. (2002). E-business & e-commerce infrastructure: technologies supporting the e-business initiative. McGraw Hill.

Chellappa, R. K. (2002). Consumers’ trust in electronic commerce transactions: The role of perceived privacy and perceived security. Thesis, 1–38. https://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=

Chen, Y., & Barnes, S. (2007). Initial trust and online buyer behavior. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 107(1), 21-36. https://doi.org/10.1108/02635570710719034

Culnan, M. J., & Bies, R. J. (2016). Managing privacy concerns strategically: The implications of fair information practices for marketing in the twenty-first century. In C. J. Bennet and R. Grant (Eds.), Visions of Privacy (149-167). University of Toronto Press.

Davis, F. D. (1989). Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology. MIS Quarterly, 13(3), 319-340. https://doi.org/10.2307/249008

Davis, R., Lang, B. & Gautam, N. (2013). Modeling utilitarian-hedonic dual mediation (UHDM) in the purchase and use of games. Internet Research, 23(2), 229-256. https://doi.org/10.1108/10662241311313330

Dhillon, G. S., & Moores, T. T. (2001). Internet privacy: Interpreting key issues. In A. Salehnia (Ed.), Ethical Issues of Information Systems, (1-9). IGI Global. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-931777-15-5.ch001

Escobar-Rodríguez, T., & Bonsón-Fernández, R. (2017). Analysing online purchase intention in Spain: fashion e-commerce. Information Systems and E-Business Management, 15(3), 599–622. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10257-016-0319-6

Everard, A., & Galletta, D. F. (2005). How presentation flaws affect perceived site quality, trust, and intention to purchase from an online store. Journal of Management Information Systems, 22(3), 56–95. https://doi.org/10.2753/MIS0742-1222220303

Fang, Y., Qureshi, I., Sun, H., Mccole, P., Ramsey, E., & Lim, P. (2014). Trust, satisfaction, and online repurchase intention: The moderating role of perceived effectiveness of e-commerce institutional mechanism. MIS Quarterly: Management Information System, 38(2), 407-427. https://www.jstor.org/stable/26634932

Farivar, S., Turel, O., & Yuan, Y. (2017). A trust-risk perspective on social commerce use: An examination of the biasing role of habit. Internet Research, 27(3), 586-607. https://doi.org/10.1108/IntR-06-2016-0175

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39-50. https://doi.org/10.1177/002224378101800104

Gefen, D. (2000). E-commerce: The role of familiarity and trust. Omega, 28(6), 725–737. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0305-0483(00)00021-9

Gefen, D., & Straub, D. (2004). Consumer trust in B2C e-Commerce and the importance of social presence: Experiments in e-products and e-services. Omega, 32(6), 407-424. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.omega.2004.01.006

Grandón, E. E. & Pearson, J. M. (2004). Electronic commerce adoption: An empirical study of small and medium US businesses. Information & Management, 42(1), 197-216. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.im.2003.12.010

Green, D. T., & Pearson, J. M. (2011). Integrating website usability with the electronic commerce acceptance model. Behaviour and Information Technology, 30(2), 181–199. https://doi.org/10.1080/01449291003793785

Gorla, N., Chiravuri, A. & Chinta, R. (2017). Business-tobusiness e-commerce adoption: An empirical investigation of business factors. Information Systems Frontiers, 19, 645–667. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10796-015-9616-8

Gu, S., Slusarczyk, B., Hajizada, I., Kovalyova, I. & Sakhbieva, A. (2022). Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on online consumer purchasing behavior. Journal of Theoretical and Applied Electronic Commerce Research, 16 (6), 2263-2281. https://doi.org/10.3390/jtaer16060125

Guthrie, C., Fosso-Wamba, S. & Arnaud, J. B. (2021). Online consumer resilience during a pandemic: An exploratory study of e-commerce behavior before, during and after a COVID-19 lockdown. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 61, 102570. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jretconser.2021.102570

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (2006). Multivariate data analysis. Pearson Prentice Hall.

Hong, I. B., & Cha, H. S. (2013). The mediating role of consumer trust in an online merchant in predicting purchase intention. International Journal of Information Management, 33(6), 927–939. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2013.08.007

Jarvenpaa, S., Tractinsky, N., & Vitale, M. (2000). Consumer trust in an internet store. Information Technology and Management, 1, 45-71. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1019104520776

Jones, K. & Leonard, L. N. K. (2014). Factors influencing buyer’s trust in consumer-to-consumer e-commerce. Journal of Computer Information Systems, 54(4), 71-79. https://doi.org/10.1080/08874417.2014.11645724

Joshi, A., Kale, S., Chandel, S. & Pal, D. K. (2015). Likert scale: Explored and explained. Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, 7(4), 396-403. https://doi.org/10.9734/BJAST/2015/14975

Kartiwi, M. & MacGregor, R. C. (2007). Electronic commerce adoption barriers in small to médium-sized enterprises (SME’s) in developed and developing countries: A cross-country comparison. Journal of Electronic Commerce in Organizations, 5(3), 35-51. https://doi.org/10.4018/jeco.2007070103

Kim, H. B, Kim, T., & Shin, S. W. (2009). Modeling roles of subjective norms and eTrust in customers’ acceptance of airline B2C eCommerce websites. Tourism Management, 30(2), 266–277. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2008.07.001

Kim, Y. R. & Liu, A. (2022). Social distancing, trust and post-COVID-19 recovery. Tourism Management, 88, 104416. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2021.104416

Kim, S. & Park, H. (2013). Effects of various characteristics of social commerce (s-commerce) on consumers’ trust and trust performance. International Journal of Information Management, 33(2), 318-332. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2012.11.006

Lee, M. K. O. & Turban, E. (2001). A trust model for consumer internet shopping. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 6(1), 75-91. https://doi.org/10.1080/10864415.2001.11044227

Lee, H. J. & Lyu, J. (2016). Personal values as determinants of intentions to use self-service technology in retailing. Computers in Human Behavior, 60, 322-332. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2016.02.051

Lin, J., Li, T. & Guo, J. (2021). Factors influencing consumers’ continuous purchase intention on fresh food e-commerce platforms: An organic foods-centric empirical investigation. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, 50, 101103. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.elerap.2021.101103

McCole, P., Ramsey, E. & Williams, J. (2010). Trust considerations on attitudes towards online purchasing: The moderating effect of privacy and security concerns. Journal of Business Research, 63(9/10), 1018-1024. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2009.02.025

McKnight, D. H., Choudhury, V., & Kacmar, C. (2002). Developing and validating trust measure for e-commerce: An integrative typology. Information Systems Research, 13(3), 334-359. https://doi.org/10.1287/isre.13.3.334.81

McKnight, D. H., Kacmar, C. J., & Choudhury, V. (2004). Shifting factors and the ineffectiveness of third party assurance seals: A two-stage model of initial trust in a web business. Electronic Markets, 14(3), 252–266. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1019678042000245263

McKnight, D. H., & Chervany, N. L. (2001). What trust means in e-commerce customer relationships: An interdisciplinary conceptual typology. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 6(2), 35–59. https://doi.org/10.1080/10864415.2001.11044235

McLaughlin, J., & Skinner, D. (2000). Developing usability and utility: A Comparative Study of the users of new IT. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 12(3), 413-423. https://doi.org/10.1080/09537320050130633

Mohd, N. A. & Zaaba, Z. F. (2019). A review of usability and security evaluation model of e-commerce website. Procedia Computer Science, 161, 1199–1205. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2019.11.233

Montero, E. J., Simões, J. D. S., & De Muylder, C. F. (2018). The low effect of perceived risk in the relation between hedonic values and purchase intention. Journal of Marketing Management, 36(1-2), 128-148. https://doi.org/10.1080/0267257X.2019.1697725

Napier, H. A., Judd, P. J., Rivers, O. N. & Wagner, S. W. (2006). Creating winning e-business. Thomson Learning.

Nielsen, J. (1993). Usability engineering. Academic Press Inc., Harcourt Brace & Company.

O’Brien, H. L. (2010). The influence of hedonic and utilitarian motivations on user engagement: The case of online shopping experiences. Interacting with Computers, 22(5), 344–352. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intcom.2010.04.001

Pappas, N (2016). Marketing strategies, perceived risks, and consumer trust in online buying behavior. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 29, 92-103. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jretconser.2015.11.007

Parker, C. J., & Wang, H. (2016). Examining hedonic and utilitarian motivations for m-commerce fashion retail app engagement. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, 20(4), 487–506. https://doi.org/10.1108/JFMM-02-2016-0015

Pavlou, P. (2002). Consumer Intentions to adopt electronic commerce—incorporating trust and risk in the technology acceptance model. Digit 2001 Proceedings, 2. https://aisel.aisnet.org/digit2001/2

Peiris, P. M., Kulkarni, D., Mawatha, C. R., (2015). Implications of trust and usability on e-commerce adoption. The International Journal of Business and Information, 10(4), 519-556.

Pennanen, K., Kaapu, T., & Paakki, M. K. (2006). Trust, risk, privacy and security in e-commerce. ICEB 2006 Proceedings (Tampere, Finland). 25. https://aisel.aisnet.org/iceb2006/25

Perea, Y., Monsuwé, T., Dellaert, B. G. C., & De Ruyter, K. (2004). What drives consumers to shop online? A literature review. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 15(1), 102–121. https://doi.org/10.1108/09564230410523358

Pollach, I. (2005). Corporate self-presentation on the WWW: Strategies for enhancing usability, credibility and utility. Corporate Communications: An International Journal, 10(4), 285–301. https://doi.org/10.1108/13563280510630098

Rahayu, R. & Day, J. (2015). Determinant factors of e-commerce adoption by SME’s in developing countries: Evidence from Indonesia. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences. 195, 142-150. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.06.423

Ramírez-Correa, P. E., Grandón, E. E. & Arenas-Gaitán, J. (2019). Assessing differences in customers’ personal disposition to e-commerce. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 119(4), 792-820. https://doi.org/10.1108/IMDS-07-2018-0280

Ridings, C. M., Gefen, D., & Arinze, B. (2002). Some antecedents and effects of trust in virtual communities. Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 11(3–4), 271–295. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0963-8687(02)00021-5

Rosillo-Díaz, E., Blanco-Encomienda, F. J., & Crespo-Almendros, E. (2020). A cross-cultural analysis of perceived product quality, perceived risk and purchase intention in e-commerce platforms. Journal of Enterprise Information Management, 33(1), 139-160. https://doi.org/10.1108/JEIM-06-2019-0150

Safavi, R. (2009). Human/social factors influencing usability of e-commerce websites and systems [Conference]. 2009 International Conference on Application of Information and Communication Technologies. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICAICT.2009.5372597

Saloner, G. y Spence, A. M. (2001). Creating and capturing value: Perspectives and cases on electronic commerce. Wiley.

San Martín-Gutiérrez, S., & Camarero-Izquierdo, C. (2010). Los determinantes de la confianza del comprador online. Comparación con el caso de subasta. Cuadernos de Gestión, 10(3), 43-61. https://doi.org/10.5295/cdg.100187ss

Santo, P. E. & Marques, A. M. A. (2022). Determinants of the online purchase intention: Hedonic motivations, prices, information and trust. Baltic Journal of Management, 17(1), 56-71. https://doi.org/10.1108/BJM-04-2021-0140

Schneider, G. P. & Perry, J. T. (2000). Comercio electrónico. Thomson Learning.

Shik, H., & Occeña, L. (2015). Influencing factors of trust in consumer-to-consumer electronic commerce with gender and age. International Journal of Information Management, 35(3), 352-363. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2015.02.003

Soares, J. C., Limongi, R., de Sousa, J. H (Jr)., Santos, W. S., Raasch, M. & Hoeckesfeld, L. (2022). Assessing the effects of COVID-19-related risk online on shopping behavior. Journal of Marketing Analytics, forthcoming. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41270-022-00156-9

Steenkamp, J. B. E. M., & Geyskens, I. (2006). How country characteristics affect the perceived value of websites. Journal of Marketing, 70(3), 136-150. https://doi.org/10.1509/jmkg.70.3.136

Thaw, Y. Y., Mahmood, A. K., Dominic, P. D. D. (2009). A study on the factors that influence the consumer’s trust on e-commerce adoption. International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, 4(1), 153-159. https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.0909.1145

Vázquez-Casielles, R., del Río-Lanza, A. B., & Suárez-Álvarez, L. (2009). Virtual travel agencies: Analysing the e-service quality and this effects on customer satisfaction. Universia Business Review, 24, 122-142.

Wang, E., Caldwell, B. S., & Salvendy, G. (2003). Usability comparison: Similarity and differences between e-commerce and world wide web. Journal of the Chinese Institute of Industrial Engineers, 20(3), 258–268. https://doi.org/10.1080/10170660309509234

Yoon, H. S., & Occeña, L. G. (2015). Influencing factors of trust in consumer-to-consumer electronic commerce with gender and age. International Journal of Information Management, 35(3), 352–363. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2015.02.003

Yousafzal, S. Y., Pallister, J. G., & Foxall, G. R. (2005). Strategies for building and communicating trust in electronic banking: A field experiment. Psychology & Marketing, 22 (2), 181-201. https://doi.org/10.1002/mar.20054