A conceptual review of the literature on brand personality



The purpose of this study is to contribute to the knowledge of the systematization of the concept of brand personality by exploring examples of its main research via a review of the literature. We conceptually analyze the brand personality construct and review the extant findings regarding it using the antecedents, consequences and moderators identified by Eisend & Stokburger-Sauer (2013) as our methodological framework.Throughout this work, we provide a series of proposals that pose questions that merit review and exploration. Additionally, we identify some antecedents that point to emerging areas of research, and we posit that these will receive important development in the near future.Recently, the concept of brand personality has become increasingly important via greater theoretical and practical development. This situation constitutes a natural response to the social and technological trends that are taking consumer relationships to a new level. Accordingly, our findings underscore the elements that comprise a favorable context for generating brand personality and highlight its consequences and its impacts.


Brand personality, Brand loyalty, Hedonic benefits, Brand image, Strength of the brand relationship


Aaker, J., & Fournier, S. (1995). A brand as a character, a partner and a person: Three perspectives on the question of brand personality. ACR North American Advances. https://www.acrwebsite.org/volumes/7775/volumes/v22/NA-22/full

Aaker, J. L. (1997). Dimensions of brand personality. Journal of Marketing Research, 34 (3), 347-356. https://doi.org/10.1177/002224379703400304

Aaker, J. L. (1999). The malleable self: The role of self-expression in persuasion. Journal of Marketing Research, 36(1), 45-57. https://doi.org/10.1177/002224379903600104

Aaker, D. A. (2012). Building strong brands. Simon and Schuster.

Aaker, J., Fournier, S., & Brasel, S. A. (2004). When good brands do bad. Journal of Consumer research, 31(1), 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1086/383419

Aggarwal, P., & McGill, A. L. (2007). Is that car smiling at me? Schema congruity as a basis for evaluating anthropomorphized products. Journal of Consumer Research, 34(4), 468-479. https://doi.org/10.1086/518544

Agrawal, N., & Maheswaran, D. (2005). The effects of self-construal and commitment on persuasion. Journal of Consumer Research, 31(4), 841-849. https://doi.org/10.1086/426620

Aguirre-Rodriguez, A., Bosnjak, M., & Sirgy, M. J. (2012). Moderators of the self-congruity effect on consumer decision-making: A meta-analysis. Journal of Business Research, 65(8), 1179-1188. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2011.07.031

Ang, S. H., & Lim, E. A. C. (2006). The influence of metaphors and product type on brand personality perceptions and attitudes. Journal of Advertising, 35(2), 39-53. https://doi.org/10.1080/00913367.2006.10639226

Batra, R., Ahuvia, A., & Bagozzi, R. P. (2012). Brand love. Journal of Marketing, 76(2), 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1509/jm.09.0339

Bosnjak, M., Sirgy, M. J., Hellriegel, S., & Maurer, O. (2011). Postvisit destination loyalty judgments developing and testing a comprehensive congruity model. Journal of Travel Research, 50(5), 496-508. https://doi.org/10.1177/0047287510379159

Calkins, T. (2005). The challenge of branding. Kellogg on Branding. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., & Guido, G. (2001). Brand personality: how to make the metaphor fit?. Journal of economic psychology, 22(3), 377-395. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-4870(01)00039-3

Cervera-Taulet, A., Schlesinger, M. W., & Yague-Guillen, M. J. (2013). Influence of Advertising on Brand Personality in The Airline Sector: The Case of Spain. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 30(5), 445-454. https://doi.org/10.1080/10548408.2013.803390

Chaffee, S. H. (1991). Explication (Vol. 1). Sage Publications, Incorporated.

Eisend, M., & Stokburger-Sauer, N. E. (2013). Brand personality: A meta-analytic review of antecedents and consequences. Marketing Letters, 24(3), 205-216. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11002-013-9232-7

Fetscherin, M., & Toncar, M. (2010). The effects of the country of brand and the country of manufacturing of automobiles: An experimental study of consumers' brand personality perceptions. International Marketing Review, 27(2), 164-178. https://doi.org/10.1108/02651331021037494

Flight, R. L. & Coker, K. K. (2016). Brand constellations: reflections of the emotional self. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 25(2), 134-147. https://doi.org/10.1108/JPBM-02-2015-0806

Freling, T. H., Crosno, J. L., & Henard, D. H. (2011). Brand personality appeal: conceptualization and empirical validation. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 39(3), 392-406. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11747-010-0208-3

Gertner, R. K. (2010). Similarities and differences of the effect of country images on tourist and study destinations. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 27(4), 383-395. https://doi.org/10.1080/10548408.2010.481572

Gordon, R., Zainuddin, N., & Magee, C. (2016). Unlocking the potential of branding in social marketing services: utilising brand personality and brand personality appeal. Journal of Services Marketing, 30(1), 48-62. https://doi.org/10.1108/jsm-02-2015-0105

Gretry, A., Horváth, C., Belei, N., & van Riel, A. C. (2017). “Don't pretend to be my friend!” When an informal brand communication style backfires on social media. Journal of Business Research, 74, 77-89. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2017.01.012

Grohmann, B. (2009). Gender Dimensions of Brand Personality. Journal of Marketing Research, 46(1), 105-119. https://doi.org/10.1509/jmkr.46.1.105

Guido, G., & Peluso, A. M. (2015). Brand anthropomorphism: Conceptualization, measurement, and impact on brand personality and loyalty. Journal of Brand Management, 22(1), 1-19. https://doi.org/10.1057/bm.2014.40

Guido, G., Peluso, A. M., Capestro, M., & Miglietta, M. (2015). An Italian version of the 10-item Big Five Inventory: An application to hedonic and utilitarian shopping values. Personality and Individual Differences, 76, 135-140. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2014.11.053

Ha, H. Y. (2016). The evolution of brand personality: an application of online travel agencies. Journal of Services Marketing, 30(5), 529-540. https://doi.org/10.1108/jsm-05-2015-0188

Ha, H. Y., & Janda, S. (2014). Brand personality and its outcomes in the Chinese automobile industry. Asia Pacific Business Review, 20(2), 216-230. https://doi.org/10.1080/13602381.2013.841022

Haryanto, J. O., Moutinho, L., & Coelho, A. (2016). Is brand loyalty really present in the children's market? A comparative study from Indonesia, Portugal, and Brazil. Journal of Business Research, 69(10), 4020-4032. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2016.06.013

Hem, L. E., & Iversen, N. M. (2002). Decomposed similarity measures in brand extensions. In S. M. Broniarczyk and K. M. Valdosta (Eds.). Advances in Consumer Research (pp. 199-206). ACR North American Advances.

Holbrook, M. B., & Moore, W. L. (1981). Feature interactions in consumer judgments of verbal versus pictorial presentations. Journal of Consumer Research, 8(1), 103-113. https://doi.org/10.1086/208846

Ha, H. Y. (2016). The evolution of brand personality: an application of online travel agencies. Journal of Services Marketing, 30, 5, 529-540. https://doi.org/10.1108/JSM-05-2015-0188

Isen, A. M., Shalker, T. E., Clark, M., & Karp, L. (1978). Affect, accessibility of material in memory, and behavior: A cognitive loop?. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36(1), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.36.1.1

Johar, G. V., Sengupta, J., & Aaker, J. L. (2005). Two roads to updating brand personality impressions: Trait versus evaluative inferencing. Journal of Marketing Research, 42(4), 458-469. https://doi.org/10.1509/jmkr.2005.42.4.458

Keller, K. L. (1993). Conceptualizing, measuring, and managing customer-based brand equity. Journal of Marketing, 57(1), 1-22. https://doi.org/10.1177/002224299305700101

Keller, K. L. (2003). Brand synthesis: The multidimensionality of brand knowledge. Journal of Consumer Research, 29(4), 595-600. https://doi.org/10.1086/346254

Kim, S., & Lehto, X. Y. (2013). Projected and Perceived Destination Brand Personalities: The Case of South Korea. Journal of Travel Research, 52(1), 117-130. https://doi.org/10.1177/0047287512457259

Keller, K. L., & Lehmann, D. R. (2003). How do brands create value?. Marketing Management, 12(3), 26-31.

Kotler, P. (1991). Marketing management: analysis, planning, and control (8th ed). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Kotsi, F., & Valek, N. (2018). Flying with Nicole Kidman or Jennifer Aniston? Brand funnel stages’ influence on brand personality. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 35(3), 365-376. https://doi.org/10.1080/10548408.2017.1360232

Kressmann, F., Sirgy, M. J., Herrmann, A., Huber, F., Huber, S., & Lee, D. J. (2006). Direct and indirect effects of self-image congruence on brand loyalty. Journal of Business Research, 59(9), 955-964. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2006.06.001

Kumar, J. (2021). Understanding the ties between brand gender and brand engagement in online brand communities: the moderating role of consumers’ biological sex. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 31(5), 761-779. https://doi.org/10.1108/JPBM-11-2019-2659

Lau, K. C., & Phau, I. (2007). Extending symbolic brands using their personality: Examining antecedents and implications towards brand image fit and brand dilution. Psychology & Marketing, 24(5), 421-444. https://doi.org/10.1002/mar.20167

Lavine, H., Huff, J. W., Wagner, S. H., & Sweeney, D. (1998). The moderating influence of attitude strength on the susceptibility to context effects in attitude surveys. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75(2), 359- 373. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.75.2.359

Lee, J. S., & Back, K. J. (2010). Examining antecedents and consequences of brand personality in the upper-upscale business hotel segment. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 27(2), 132-145. https://doi.org/10.1080/10548400903579688

Leung, R., & Law, R. (2010). A review of personality research in the tourism and hospitality context. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 27(5), 439-459. https://doi.org/10.1080/10548408.2010.499058

Levy, S., & Hino, H. (2016). Emotional brand attachment: a factor in customer-bank relationships. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 34(2), 136-150. https://doi.org/10.1108/ijbm-06-2015-0092

Lieven, T., & Hildebrand, C. (2016). The impact of brand gender on brand equity Findings from a large-scale cross-cultural study in ten countries. International Marketing Review, 33(2), 178-195. https://doi.org/10.1108/imr-08-2014-0276

Lim, E. A. C., & Ang, S. H. (2008). Hedonic vs. utilitarian consumption: A cross-cultural perspective based on cultural conditioning. Journal of Business Research, 61(3), 225-232. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2007.06.004

Lin, C. P. (2009). Learning online brand personality and satisfaction: The moderating effects of gaming engagement. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 25(3), 220-236. https://doi.org/10.1080/10447310802629827

Llanos-Herrera, G. R., & Merigo, J. M. (2018). Overview of brand personality research with bibliometric indicators. Kybernetes, 48 (3), 546-569. https://doi.org/10.1108/K-02-2018-0051

Lovett, M., Peres, R., & Shachar, R. (2014). A data set of brands and their characteristics. Marketing Science, 33(4), 609-617. https://doi.org/10.1287/mksc.2014.0861

Maehle, N., Otnes, C., & Supphellen, M. (2011). Consumers' perceptions of the dimensions of brand personality. Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 10(5), 290-303. https://doi.org/10.1002/cb.355

Mano, H., & Oliver, R. L. (1993). Assessing the dimensionality and structure of the consumption experience: evaluation, feeling, and satisfaction. Journal of Consumer research, 20(3), 451-466. https://doi.org/10.1086/209361

Moore, K., & Reid, S. (2008). The birth of brand: 4000 years of branding. Business History, 50(4), 419-432. https://doi.org/10.1080/00076790802106299

Ogilvy, D. (1955). The Image of the Brand–A new approach to creative operations. Reprinted by Courtesy of Ogilvy & Mather, 1-6. https://markenlexikon.com/texte/ogilvy_the-image-of-the-brand_1955.pdf

Okazaki, S. (2006). Excitement or sophistication? A preliminary exploration of online brand personality. International Marketing Review, 23(3), 279-303. https://doi.org/10.1108/02651330610670451

Olavarrieta, S., Friedmann, R., & Manzur, E. (2010). Brand Personality en Chile: un enfoque combinado emico-etico. Estudios de Administración, 17(1), 25–50. https://doi.org/10.5354/0719-0816.2010.56336

Parent, M., Plangger, K., & Bal, A. (2011). The new WTP: Willingness to participate. Business horizons, 54(3), 219-229. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bushor.2011.01.003

Park, S. E., Choi, D., & Kim, J. (2005). Visualizing e-brand personality: Exploratory studies on visual attributes and e-brand personalities in Korea. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 19(1), 7-34. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327590ijhc1901_3

Plummer, J. T. (1985). Brand personality: A strategic concept for multinational advertising. In Marketing Educators' Conference (pp. 1-31). New York, NY: Young & Rubicam.

Rezaei, S., Ali, F., Amin, M., & Jayashree, S. (2016). Online impulse buying of tourism products: The role of web site personality, utilitarian and hedonic web browsing. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, 7(1), 60-83. https://doi.org/10.1108/JHTT-03-2015-0018

Rossiter, J. R., & Percy, L. (1987). Advertising and promotion management. McGraw-Hill Book Company.

Singh, D. (2013). The brand personality component of brand goodwill: Some antecedents and consequences. Brand equity & advertising: Advertising's role in building strong brands, 83-96.

Smit, E., Bronner, F., & Tolboom, M. (2007). Brand relationship quality and its value for personal contact. Journal of Business Research, 60(6), 627-633. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2006.06.012

Spielmann, N., & Babin, B. J. (2011). Service with personality: a note on generalizing personality across services contexts. Journal of Services Marketing, 25(7), 467-474. https://doi.org/10.1108/08876041111173543

Stokburger-Sauer, N. E. (2011). The relevance of visitors’ nation brand embeddedness and personality congruence for nation brand identification, visit intentions and advocacy. Tourism Management, 32(6), 1282-1289. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2010.12.004

Sung, M., & Yang, S. U. (2008). Toward the model of university image: The influence of brand personality, external prestige, and reputation. Journal of Public Relations Research, 20(4), 357-376. https://doi.org/10.1080/10627260802153207

Sung, Y. J. (2011). The effect of usage situation on Korean consumers' brand evaluation: The moderating role of self-monitoring. Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 10(1), 31- 40. https://doi.org/10.1002/cb.344

Sung, Y. J., & Choi, S. M. (2012). The influence of self-construal on self-brand congruity in the United States and Korea. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 43(1), 151-166. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022110383318

Sung, Y., & Kim, J. (2010). Effects of brand personality on brand trust and brand affect. Psychology & Marketing, 27(7), 639-661. https://doi.org/10.1002/mar.20349

Sung, Y., Choi, S. M., & Tinkham, S. F. (2012). Brand‐situation congruity: The roles of self‐construal and brand commitment. Psychology & Marketing, 29(12), 941-955. https://doi.org/10.1002/mar.20576

Sung, Y. J., & Tinkham, S. F. (2005). Brand personality structures in the United States and Korea: Common and culture-specific factors. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 15(4), 334-350. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327663jcp1504_8

Toldos-Romero, M. D., & Orozco-Gomez, M. M. (2015). Brand personality and purchase intention. European Business Review, 27(5), 462-476. https://doi.org/10.1108/ebr-03-2013-0046

Valette-Florence, R. & Barnier, V.D. (2013). Toward a micro conception of brand personality: an application for print media brand in a French context. Journal of Business Research, 66(7), 897-903. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2011.12.008

Venable, B. T., Rose, G. M., & Gilbert, F. W. (2003). Measuring the brand personality of non-profit organizations. In P. A. Keller and Rook, D. W. (Eds.). Advances in Consumer Research Volume 30 (pp. 379-380). Valdosta, Georgia: ACR North American Advances.

Wang, X., & Yang, Z. (2008). Does country-of-origin matter in the relationship between brand personality and purchase intention in emerging economies? Evidence from China's auto industry. International Marketing Review, 25(4), 458-474. https://doi.org/10.1108/02651330810887495

Willems, K. (2022). Brand personality appeal in retailing: Comparing fashion-and grocery retailing. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 64, 102833. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jretconser.2021.102833

Woods, W. A. (1960). Psychological dimensions of consumer decision. Journal of Marketing, 24(3), 15-19. https://doi.org/10.1177/002224296002400303

Zeithaml, V. A. (1988). Consumer perceptions of price, quality, and value: A means-end model and synthesis of evidence. Journal of Marketing, 52(3), 2-22. https://doi.org/10.1177/002224298805200302

Zeugner-Roth, K. P., & Žabkar, V. (2015). Bridging the gap between country and destination image: Assessing common facets and their predictive validity. Journal of Business Research, 68(9), 1844-1853. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2015.01.012